Explain common feature of different network several operating System ?
(type,processing,memory)

=> common feature of different network operating system
1 . Type
2. Processing
3. Memory
4. Storage
5. Addition features.
      i) Open standards compatibility
      ii) Application availability    
      iii) Specific organizational needs
1)Type:
       Operating system are generally one of three types.
1.    Client operating system
2.    Server operating system
3.    Hybrid operating system
1 . client operating system:-
         A client operating system uses resources such as printer or files . these operating system have network capability but generally don’t provide service to the network.
2. server operating system:-
        The server operating system function to provide resources unstead of use them . Most server NOSs have limited  interface and work only to provide information to a client.
3 .Hybrid operating system:-
        A hybrid operating system is both a client and server in a network environment. The portion of the operating system acting as a server can share resources. The portion running as client can access resources from other servers.
2. Processing
           As the complexities of network and the number of users accessing the server increase . So do the demands placed on the CPU and with these demand comes the need for increased processing power.
à The processing power of computer can be increased with the following technique.
1.    symmetric multiprocessing:-
      Having only one high speed processor is a limitation multiprocessor system are naore powerful then single processor system.
       Advantage of multi processer system .is that you can use two or more lower speed processors to accomplish more work than a single high speed processor.
       The downside is that NOS must manage the work sent to each processor and schedule time efficiently. The scheduling involves some overhead.
       The most common implementation of multiple processor is symmetric multiprocessing. SMP view all processors as equal, thus symmetric can allows any processor that is free to do the work.
2.    Multithreading:-
      Multithreading is the process of taking the applications – or operating system that run on your computer and dividing them up into much smaller pieces or threads.
By making each piece of the processing job its own thread multiple thread can be run simultaneously through the CPU.
3.    Memory:
       NOS is generally responsible for using access memory or RAM. For application code and user data.
1.    RAM usage:-
      Protecting the information stored in RAM by various applications is another important role of operating system.
à If program require a chunk of memory to operate the operating system would allocate that amount. However, some programms would terminate incorrectly, not returning as much memory, as they took…This memory fragmentation is reffered to as a memory leak, As programs continue to run, the system progressively has less and less memory until it’s simply doesn’t have enough to operate.
àTo address these issues , modern operating system use memory manager ,which is responsible for all requests of memory to the operating system. Programms are never allowed to directly modify each other’s data but must instead contact the memory manager.
2.    Virtual Memory:
       The memory manager component makes use of not only the physical RAM. In the computer but also a special storage area on the hard drive called swap file.
       The Swapping process from RAM to hard drive and hard drive to RAM is generally done with small area called pages.
       Virtual memory reduce large capacity hard disk to swap information but if the physical RAM is simply. Not big enough system can spend cal it’s time swapping data, process called disk thrashing.
      3.Caching:
           Many server NOSs can storing frequently used information in RAM wether than looking for it on the local and slower disk storage. This process is known as caching.


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by Sangita   Gamit  in Networking  on 9/9/2015 1:23:52 AM  


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