JAVA Ring

1. INTRODUCTION

 

The Java Ring is a stainless-steel ring, 16-millimeters (0.6 inches) in diameter

that houses a 1-million-transistor processor, called an iButton. The ring has 134 KB of RAM

, 32 KB of ROM, a real-time clock and a Java virtual machine, which is a piece of software that

recognizes the Java language and translates it for the user''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''s computer system.

 

At Celebration School, the rings have been programmed to store electronic cash to

pay for lunches, automatically unlock doors, take attendance, store a student''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''s

medical information and allow students to check out books. All of this information is

stored on the ring''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''s iButton. Students simply press the signet of their Java Ring

against the Blue Dot receptor, and the system connected to the receptor performs

the function that the applet instructs it to. In the future, the Java Ring may start your car.

Mobile computing is beginning to break the chains that tie us to our desks, but many of today''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''s

mobile devices can still be a bit awkward to carry around. In the next age of computing, we will see an

explosion of computer parts across our bodies, rather than across our desktops. Digital jewelry,

designed to supplement the personal computer, will be the evolution in digital technology that

makes computer elements entirely

compatible with the human form.

 

The Java Ring, first introduced at Java One Conference, has been tested at Celebration School, an innovative K-12 school just outside Orlando; FL.The rings given to students are programmed with Java applets that communicate with host applications on networked systems. Applets are small applications that are designed to be run within another application. The Java Ring is snapped into a reader, called a Blue Dot receptor, to allow communication between a host system and the Java Ring.

 

2. HISTORY

 

In the summer of 1989, Dallas Semiconductor Corp. produced the first stainless- Steel encapsulated memory devices utilizing the Dallas Semiconductor 1-Wire communication protocol. By 1990, this protocol had been refined and employed in a variety of self-contained memory devices. Originally called "touch memory" devices, they were later renamed "iButtons." Packaged like batteries, iButtons have only a single active electrical contact on the top surface, with the stainless steel shell serving as ground.

 

Data can be read from or written to the memory serially through a simple and inexpensive RS232C serial port adapter, which also supplies the power required to perform the I/O. The iButton memory can be read or written with a momentary contact to the "Blue Dot" receptor provided by the adapter. When not connected to the serial port adapter, memory data is maintained in non-volatile random access memory (NVRAM) by a lifetime lithium energy supply that will maintain the memory content for at least 10 years. Unlike electrically erasable programmable read-only memory (EEPROM), the NVRAM iButton memory can be erased and rewritten as often as necessary without wearing out. It can also be erased or rewritten at the high speeds typical of complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) memory, without requiring the time-consuming programming of EEPROM.

 

The iButton product line and its many applications are described at Dallas Semiconductor''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''s iButton Web site, which is listed in the Resources section. Every iButton product is manufactured with a unique 8-byte serial number and carries a guarantee that no two parts will ever have the same number. Among the simplest iButtons are memory devices that can hold files and subdirectories and can be read and written like small floppy disks. In addition to these, there are iButtons with password protected file areas for security applications, iButtons that count the number of times they have been rewritten for securing financial transactions, iButtons with temperature sensors, iButtons with continuously running date/time clocks, and even iButtons containing powerful microprocessors. The java ring was first introduced in the year 1998, in the java one conference .the ring was built by the Dalas semiconductor corporation.

 

2.1 The postal security device

 

For over 10 years, Dallas Semiconductor also has been designing, making, and selling a line of highly secure microprocessors that are used in satellite TV descramblers, automatic teller machines, point-of-sale terminals, and other similar applications requiring cryptographic security and high resistance to attack by hackers. The U.S. Postal Service''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''s (USPS) Information Based Indicia Program Postal Security Device Specification, intended to permit printing of valid U.S. postage on any PC, provided the first opportunity to combine two areas of expertise when a secure microprocessor was designed into an iButton the resulting product, named the Crypto iButton, combines high processor performance, high-speed cryptographic primitives, and exceptional protection against physical and cryptographic attack. For example, the large integer modular exponentiation engine can perform 1024-bit modular exponentiations with a 1024-bit exponent in significantly less than a second. The ability to perform large integer modular exponentiations at high speedis central to RSA encryption, Diffie- Hellman key exchange, Digital Signature Standard (FIPS 186), and many other modern cryptographic operations.

A special operating system was designed and stored in the ROM of the Crypto iButton to support cryptography and general-purpose financial transactions -- such as those required by the Postal Service program. While not a Java virtual machine, the Ecommerce firmware designed for this application had several points of similarity with Java, including an object-oriented design and a bytecode interpreter to interpret and execute Dallas Semiconductor''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''s custom-designed E-Commerce Script Language. A compiler was also written to compile the high-level language representation of the Script Language to a bytecode form that could be interpreted by the E-Commerce VM. Although the E-Commerce firmware was intended primarily for the USPS application, the firmware supports a variety of general electronic commerce models that are suitable for many different applications. The E-Commerce firmware also supports cryptographic protocols for secure information exchange such as the Simple Key-Management for Internet Protocol (SKIP) developed by Sun Microsystems Inc. The E-Commerce iButton and the SDK for programming it are described in detail on the Crypto iButton home page.

 

 

 

3. COMPONENTS

 

The main components of the java ring are following:-

  • JAVA VIRTUAL MACHINE(JVM)

 

  • 134KB OF RAM

 

  • 32KB OF RAM

 

  • REAL TIME CLOCK

 

  • IBUTTON

 

  • BLUE DOT RECEPTOR

 

 

 

4. WORKING

Since java ring is programmed with the applets and the programming is done according to our application and this will specific for the specific user. All information of the user is stored in the java ring.

 

User simply has to press the signet of the java ring against the blue dot receptor and the system connected to the receptor performs the function that the applets instruct it to.java ring has the user profile and the same profile is present in the door embedded system also, when the user press the signet of the java ring against the java ring reader which is embedded at the handle of the door the data is transferred from the ring to door system. if the profile is authentic means user is authentic to open the door the applets president in the ring instruct the door to open. Information is transferred between iButton and a PC with a momentary contact, at up to 142K bits per second. To do that one presses iButton to the Blue Dot receptor, a $15 pipeline into PC. The Blue Dot sticks to any convenient spot on the front of a PC and is cabled to the serial or parallel port in the back. According to the Dallas         Superconductor''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''s information, over 41 million iButtons are currently in circulation. List of the major users include the U.S. Post Office, entire truck fleet fitted with iButtons that track vehicle maintenance; Citizens of Istanbul, Turkey, who store digital cash in the iButton, using the device as a small change purse on their mass transit system. it was also said that the U.S. Postal service has approved the cryptographic iButton as a Postal Security Device to be used in its PC Postage program that allows individuals to download postage off the Internet and print it from their own printers

Since their introduction, iButton memory devices have been deployed in vast quantities as rugged portable data carriers, often in harsh environmental conditions. Among the large-scale uses are as transit fare carriers in Istanbul, Turkey; as maintenance record carriers on the sides of Ryder trucks; and as mailbox identifiers inside the mail compartments of the U.S. Postal Service''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''s outdoor mailboxes. They are worn as earrings by cows in Canada to hold vaccination records, and they are used by agricultural workers in many areas as rugged substitutes for timecards.

The iButton product line and its many applications are described at Dallas Semiconductor''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''s iButton Web site, which is listed in the Resources section. Every iButton product is manufactured with a unique 8-byte serial number and carries a guarantee that no two parts will ever have the same number. Among the simplest iButtons are memory devices that can hold files and subdirectories and can be read and written like small floppy disks. In addition to these, there are iButtons with password-protected file areas for security applications, iButtons that count the number of times they have been rewritten for securing financial transactions, iButtons with temperature sensors, iButtons with continuously running date/time clocks, and even iButtons containing powerful microprocessors. Information is transferred between iButton and a PC with a momentary contact, at up to 142K bits per second. To do that one presses iButton to the Blue Dot receptor, a $15 pipeline into PC. The Blue Dot sticks to any convenient spot on the front of a PC and is cabled to the serial or parallel port in the back. According to the Dallas Superconductor''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''s information, over 41 million iButtons are currently in circulation. List of the major users include the U.S. Post Office, entire truck fleet fitted with iButtons that track vehicle maintenance; Citizens of Istanbul,

Turkey, who store digital cash in the iButton, using the device as a small change purse on their mass transit system. it was also said that the U.S. Postal service has approved the cryptographic iButton as a Postal Security Device to be used in its PC Postage program that allows individuals to download postage off the Internet and print it from

 

 

5. SECURITY

The java ring provides very high degree of security for the confidential data that is stored in the NVRAM memory. The barrier substrate and the triple layer technique effectively deny access the unauthorized access to the NVRAM confidential data. In the worst case if any unauthorized access penetrates the barrier the security processor detects it and immediately the data which is written in the NVRAM. The Crypto iButton hardware platform offers a unique set of special features expressly designed to prevent private keys and other confidential information from becoming available to hackers.

Figure 1 shows a detail of the internal construction of the Crypto iButton. The silicon die containing the processor, ROM, and NVRAM memory is metallurgically bonded to the barrier substrate through which all electrical contacts are made. This barrier substrate and the triple-layer metal construction techniques employed in the silicon fabrication effectively deny access to the data stored in the NVRAM. If any attempt is made to penetrate these barriers, the NVRAM data is immediately erased. This construction technique and the use of NVRAM for the storage of private keys and other confidential data provides a much higher degree of data security than that afforded by EEPROM memory. The fact that the communication path between the Crypto iButton and the outside world is limited to a single data line provides additional security against hardware attacks by limiting the range of signals accessible to the hacker.

In addition, the processor itself is driven by an unstabilized ring oscillator operating over a range of 10 to 20 mega hertz, so that the clock frequency of the processor is not constant and cannot be determined by external means. This differs from the design of alternative devices in which the processor clock signal is injected by the reader and is therefore exactly determined by the host processor. External control of the clock provides a valuable tool to hackers, since they can repetitively cycle such a processor to the same point in its execution simply by applying the same number of clock cycles.

Control of the clock also affords a means to induce a calculation error and thereby obtain information that can ultimately reveal secret encryption keys. A 32-kilohertz crystal oscillator is used in the Java iButton to operate the time-of-day clock at a constant and well-controlled frequency that is independent of the processor clock.  

 


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by sharukh   multani  in Seminar Document  on 5/31/2017 3:59:33 AM  


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nice
by   bhavesh   on  4/9/2015 6:15:57 AM
That's the good info.
by   Hemdeep   on  6/25/2017 4:02:43 AM